Having a crabbed face of her own, she’ll eat less Verjuyce with her mutton
T Middleton, Women beware Women, 1657
Verjuice was a very popular cooking ingredient from the Middle Ages onwards. Many old recipes ask for it and they seem to hit a peak during Tudor times. It is essentially the juice of either sour grapes or crab apples; Britain might not be the best place to grow delicious sweet grapes, but we can certainly excel in growing sour fruit! It took the place of fresh lemon juice in recipes for salad dressings, desserts like syllabubs; it was added to stews, soups and sauces as a seasoning, as well as an ingredient in marinades. It was also believed to have medicinal properties; for example, it was mixed with olive oil and blown up horses’ noses to treat colds! It was basically a necessary piece of kit in any kitchen, seeming to drop out of favour by the end of eighteenth century when lemons became more accessible.
Crushing the grapes for verjuice
The word verjuice comes from the Old French verjus, with ver- meaning green or unripe and –jus being juice. The earliest written mention of it in British literature comes from around 1302, so we are talking old. It must have been such a useful ingredient in a place where fresh lemons will have either have been impossible to get hold of or terribly expensive.
I expected never to taste verjuice, but then as I was wandering around the excellent Global Foods Market in St Louis minding my own business, I happened upon a jar of it in the Middle East aisle of the shop. Naturally I bought some and thought I’d try some original recipes where verjuice was a main ingredient rather than just a seasoning.
17th century verjuice vinaigrette
In the 1897 volume of Good Housekeeping the subject of using verjuice in salad dressings inexplicably crops up. It takes quotes from the 17th century cook book The English Huswife by Gervase Markham. Anyway, it says that if you want to make a simple sallet then make a dressing of verjuice, sallet [olive] oil and sugar. Use it with sparagus, camphire, cucumbers, leeks, blanched carrots, purslane, with a world of others too tedious to nominate. He must have been in a bit of a mood the day he wrote that part.
It was a pretty brief recipe. Although verjuice is very tart, its underlying flavours are rather subtle so it needed quite a high ratio of verjuice to oil (much more than vinegar or lemon juice dressings).
I mixed together 4 tablespoons each of verjuice and extra virgin olive oil. To offset the sourness, I added a teaspoon of soft dark brown sugar, stirring until it dissolved. Lastly I seasoned it with a little salt and pepper. Easy and surprisingly subtle. Any leftover dressing can be stored and blown up your horse’s nose should it ever get a sniffle.
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Sweet verjuice ‘scrambled eggs’ with brioche toast
I recently wrote a post about fruit curds, and I seem to have found a possible source of the preserve when looking for verjuice recipes. There is a recipe in Le Patissier François (published around 1690) that has helpfully been translated into English by Harold McGee where verjuice and salt are added to eggs in order to make them coagulate at a lower temperature, tenderising them:
Break four eggs, beat them, adjust with salt and four spoonsful of verjus, put the mix on the fire, and stir gently with a silver spoon just until the eggs thicken enough, and then take them off the fire and stir them a bit more as they thicken. One can make scrambles eggs in the same way with lemon or orange juice.
It is of Mr McGee’s opinion that a sweetened version of this recipe could be the origin of the fruit curd. Notice that fresh lemons or oranges can be used, suggesting that they are less common than verjuice.
Below is my interpretation of that recipe. I add plenty of acidic verjuice and a large pinch of salt, meaning that the ‘scrambled eggs’ actually end up thickening more like a custard. I have to say it was delicious, so if you ever do come across some verjuice have a go at this recipe:
Ingredients (for 2 people)
A good knob of butter
6 tbs verjuice
good pinch of salt
2 level tbs sugar
2 slices of brioche
Melt the butter in a saucepan on a medium heat. Whisk together the eggs, verjuice, salt and sugar until there is no trace of white left. Pour the egg mixture in the saucepan and carry on whisking over a medium heat. Meanwhile toast the slices of brioche. When the eggs have thickened and are just about to boil, pour them into two small pots and serve with the brioche.
13 responses to “Forgotten Foods #2: Verjuice”
Oddly enough I often have a bottle of grape verjuice in the fridge – I get friends to bring it back from farmers markets in southern France. And it goes excellently with cold mutton, cutting the fat. For some reason, despite knowing that it was made with crab apples in England, I’ve never tried making my own. Proper pasteurisation seems indicated if one is to store it.
On the curd front I was intrigued last week in Vienna to meet an “elderflower curd” on the menu which turned out to be an elderflower/quark/lemon juice/whipped egg white/sugar mould (I think – the chef spoke no English, I no German). it was very good indeed – served with elderflower sorbet, fresh strawberries and strawberry coulis. Dombeisl.at if your German is better than mine. I’ve often wondered whether early curds were just that – curds – and gradually lost the cheese part of the mix as time went on
I thought the same as you with the fruit curds originating from milky curds but I have never found any actual link. I know they have been called cheeses in the past too, but the recipes are pretty much the same as we use today for fruit curds. It will have to reamin a mystery for now.
I love elderflower, but you hardly see anything flavoured with it these days. i once tried to make elderflower campagne but, alas, it was a disaster…
Wanted to let you know that I’ve just discovered your blog and am enjoying your posts very much! Love this new one about verjuice. I don’t have much of a sweet tooth, so the acidity sounds wonderful. I’m going to buy a bottle in my local Middle Eastern grocery & try out your salad dressing. Thanks!
Thanks for reading! Yes verjuice is great and it should be the next big thing. The custard was especially good, but then again I love custard
Since I live in St. Louis and am familiar with the Global Food Market you mentioned, your post really caught my eye. Are you from St. Louis, by any chance?
I am not from St Louis – I lived there for a year and moved back to the UK in August last year. I was working at Wash U in the Biology Dept. I really liked it in St Louis and met some really nice people
Thank you so much for responding! I enjoy your posts.
…and I’m glad people actually read them!
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The sour grape juice is actually cooked and reduced by half before it becomes verjuice, that is according to a 13th century Arabic cookbook. It also mentions adding pieces of cassia and using bunches of mint to stir the pot during cooking.
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That’s much more fancy than the English methods – I reckon they just crushed crab apples or grapes and got the juice that way. I’ve not across any English MS that mention boiling it down first anyway. I didn’t realise verjuice was a thing outisde of temperate/cold Europe, but I suppose the Europeans learned about verjuice from the Muslium Empire just like marzipan etc.
I went back to the book and looked up the recipes where verjuice is used, and there the author just prescribes fresh juice. So the cooking is probably to preserve it for using off-season. I’m not really sure who used verjuice first, but it was probably an old and a common ingredient in many cuisines. Cooking in the Islamic region around the middle east was heavily influenced by Persian cooking, which in turn might have had some significant Greek influence since the time of the Seleucid Empire. So, mutual influences between Europe and that region just go back and forth, and it is hard to pin point their exact origin. If you are interested, the book I mentioned has an English translation, it is “Scents and Flavors: A Syrian Cookbook”, translated by Charles Perry and Published by NYU Press.